lundi, mai 28, 2007

Comment peut-on être Breton ? de Morvan Lebesque

Vibrant plaidoyer pour la Bretagne

Morvan Lebesque était un pur inconnu pour moi jusqu'à ce que je lise l'excellente bande dessinée " Bran Ruz " où il apparaît dans une des dernières pages de l'album. Le personnage m'a intrigué. J'aime bien ce style de bonhomme pour en avoir connu mais ça c'est une autre histoire.

Le livre est essentiellement axé sur la revendication bretonne et dénonce les nombreuses humiliations et injustices subis par les Bretons. Morvan Lebesque commence par décrire ce qu'implique pour lui le fait d'avoir des origines bretonnes et la façon dont ses origines lui ont valu une foule de railleries et de moqueries de la part de ses contemporains. Il explique également comment à l'âge de quatorze ans, il se découvre le cœur à gauche et expose les raisons qui justifient ce choix politique. Dans le troisième chapitre, Lebesque révèle comment le peuple breton fût pendant très longtemps privé de la connaissance de son histoire car la langue bretonne et l'enseignement de l'histoire de la Bretagne étaient deux matières interdites dans les écoles de son enfance. Certains enseignants de l'époque allaient même jusqu'à accrocher un sabot percé d'un trou ou tout autre objet au cou du pauvre enfant coupable d'avoir laissé échapper un mot de breton. Morvan Lebesque consacre donc ce chapitre à l'histoire de la Bretagne.

Dans le quatrième chapitre, Lebesque explique de quelle façon la Bretagne fut reléguée au rang de simple colonie dans l'Hexagone et expose les mécanismes politiques et économiques qui ont maintenu les Bretons dans l'aliénation et dans une grande misère matérielle. Le sixième chapitre traite du réveil breton et retrace le parcours de différentes organisations révolutionnaires bretonnes et de leurs actions dont l'organisation secrète " Gwenn Ha Du ". Il parle aussi de la fondation du parti autonomiste breton " Strollad Emrenerien Vreiz " et de son journal " Breiz Atao ". Lebesque termine son livre sur une note d'espoir et propose une façon de vivre en France où chaque minorité ethnique aurait droit à la reconnaissance de sa culture et pourrait bénéficier d'un enseignement de qualité dans sa langue spécifique. Mais Lebesque n'est pas dupe et se traite lui-même de rêveur et d'utopiste.

On sent à chaque page de ce livre l'immense amour de Morvan Lebesque pour la Bretagne, sa langue, ses gens et sa culture. Sa rage et son indignation devant toutes les souffrances infligées au peuple breton transparaissent également tout au long du texte. Un livre très dense qui demanderait une seconde lecture tant il est riche en faits historiques et en analyses pertinentes des évènements historiques anciens et plus récents qui ont façonné la Bretagne. L'auteur n'épargne personne, ni l'Église, ni les dirigeants politiques, ni les enseignants, ni les grands patrons d'usine mais reconnaît le mérite des défenseurs de ce beau coin de pays qui mérite sa place au soleil. Un livre à lire absolument pour qui s'intéresse à la Bretagne, à son histoire et à sa survie.

L'auteur : Morvan Lebesque a écrit ce livre à l'âge de cinquante-huit ans. Il est mort à cinquante-neuf ans le quatre juillet 1970. Journaliste, il est né à Nantes, dans la Cité des Ducs de Bretagne, quai Barbin (devenu quai Barbusse), et mena ses études secondaires au lycée Clémenceau, en étant condisciple de Julien Gracq. En 1930, il est rédacteur en chef à l'Écho de la Loire. Responsable pour le pays nantais du Parti autonomiste breton (PAB), il quitte ce dernier en 1931 et fonde, avec Théophile Jeusset, le mouvement et la revue Breiz da Zont. Durant l'occupation, il travaille au journal indépendantiste l'Heure Bretonne, puis à diverses revues à Paris ou il rencontre et se lie d'amitié avec Jean-Paul Sartre et Simone de Beauvoir. Après la Libération, il entre en 1952 au Canard Enchaîné, et participe à partir de 1966 à la revue autonomiste Ar Vro, rivale de la revue progressiste et laïc Ar Falz.

" Étrange ensevelissement d'un peuple, si proche de Paris et pourtant condamné à vivre en retrait ou, pour mieux dire, en secret ! "

" Dès le premier jour, je compris que j'aimais la Bretagne et que j'allais vivre avec elle, comme on dit des gens qui se " mettent ensemble ". La France, c'était autre personne. La France, on m'avait commandé de l'aimer. "

" Par malheur, les Bretons n'avaient pas à revenir au temps des Gaulois : ils y étaient. "

" Le temps breton se hâte avec lenteur. "

" Observez l'immortelle Bécassine : elle ne prononce guère que trois mots de breton, Ma doue beniguet ; mais ces trois mots suffisent à composer son personnage, la Bretonne risible mais bien-pensante, solide comme un menhir. Tous les attributs de l'indigène apprivoisée, Bécassine les cumule : le servage (mais supérieur, en maison bourgeoise), la naïveté roublarde (on la croit idiote mais elle trompe son monde), la rondeur ébaubie, le dévouement total à ses maîtres (et, ce qui est typiquement colonial, aux enfants des maîtres), enfin la religion - ça ne nuit jamais. "

" Il est sans honneur de voler son nom à un peuple. Mais ce nom, c'est aussi à vous, démocrates, à vous tous qu'on l'a volé. "

20 commentaires:

Ar Meilher. a dit...

J'ai adoré ce livre quand il est sorti. C'était l'après 68, c'était la revanche sur les années de honte, sur cette période des années sombres où des bretonnes étaient littéralement enlevées à leur arrivée à la gare Montparnasse pour satisfaire les hôtels de passe du XIVème arrondissement de Paris.
Et puis ce titre, cette référence aux Lettres Persanes de Montesquieu que l'on devrait relire, à cette fameuse lettre 30 qui se termine par "Comment peut-on être Persan ?" qui prend tant de sens à l'époque de notre grand débat français sur l'identité nationale.
Bravo pour ton site.
Jean-Marie.

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